People who are prescribed statins to lower cholesterol, sometimes complain of pain in the muscles and therefore stop taking the medication, which creates a higher risk of heart disease and blood vessels.
Researchers have found a common variant of a gene that affects the appearance of muscular pain regardless of the statin. They also found that there is a genetic subgroup of people with a higher risk of muscle pain.
The results, published on Wednesday in the European Heart Journal, allow to identify such genetic variants and to identify patients susceptible to adverse reactions to statins and muscle pain.
Previous studies have shown that genetic variant LILRB5 associated with lower levels of creatine kinase enzymes (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which are released from damaged muscle tissue. Elevated levels of CK confirmed clinically adverse reactions to statins. LILRB5 embodiment reduces the risk of muscular symptoms, whereas the more common form of the gene observed in 60% of Europeans, may increase the risk.
A team of researchers from the University of Dundee, UK, examined the relationship between option LILRB5 and intolerant of statins. They selected patients and divided them into two groups: the first group of patients was hanged level of CK (total intolerance to statins), and the second - a low dose of intolerance. The likelihood of intolerance to statins was greater in patients with two identical copies of a gene LILRB5 general form, taking into consideration the dosage, age and gender.
The results were similar when the researchers compared the performance of two other studies: on statin myopathy (muscle disease or) of the centers in Sweden and the UK and a clinical study evaluating the effectiveness of a statin called rosuvastatin, which caused muscle pain. A meta-analysis showed that patients with two copies of the common form of the gene in a 1.3-fold increased risk of side effects associated with statin intolerance.
In international clinical study, researchers determined the number of patients with muscle pain held statin therapy as compared to those who were given placebo. "We found that some people are genetically predisposed to muscle pain. If they start taking statins, you may mistakenly assume that it is the statins increase the pain, - said the head of the research team, Professor Colin Palmer. - This means that you can check the potential users of statins on key genetic variants, including LILRB5. Adverse reactions are a major cause of discontinuation of therapy that creates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. "
The researchers say that further work was needed to determine how the genetic variant involved in the recovery of muscles. "The immune system is involved in the restoration and regeneration of muscle, and LILRB5 also involved in this", - says Dr. Siddiqui Moneza.
On muscle pain complain 7-29% of patients. For people who can not tolerate statins, alternative methods of treatment are ezetimibe and a new class of drugs, PCSK9 inhibitors.