Kidney cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the epithelium of the proximal renal tubular epithelium and renal pelvic structures. Unlike other cancers, kidney cancer is characterized by slow development and the passage of non-aggressive. Early treatment in Israel, gives a positive result.
Risk factors for kidney cancer
- Genetic abnormalities, genetic predisposition;
- Exposure to chemicals (benzene, herbicides, industrial dyes, etc.);
- Chronic kidney disease;
- Elderly age;
In the initial stages of kidney cancer are asymptomatic. As tumor growth, pain in the lumbar region, blood in the urine, weakness, fever, weight loss, hypertension.
Doctors Assuta Hospitalrecommended the appearance of these symptoms do not risk the health and immediately seek medical care. Experts will appoint the necessary range of laboratory and instrumental studies to clarify the diagnosis.
In Israel clinics use modern equipment to establish an accurate diagnosis and to choose an effective method of treatment.
Diagnosis of kidney cancer in Israel
- Radioisotope study;
- CT scan;
- Retrograde pyelography;
- A kidney biopsy;
- Excretory urography;
- General clinical laboratory tests;
To exclude the tumor metastases are assigned additional study, for example, bone scintigraphy, chest X-ray.
Kind selected Oncologists of treatment in Israel for each patient individually given stage kidney cancer, histological type of the tumor, the proliferation process, the presence of metastases, lymph nodes, and general condition of the patient.
Treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
The development of kidney cancer treatment programs due to the size and spread of cancer. First turning to surgery.
Unlike most other cancers, chemotherapy is not very effective in the treatment of kidney cancer. However, the effectiveness of such methods as radiation therapy or targeted therapy. Let us consider the treatment of the disease in one of the best private medical centers in the country - in Assuta.
Plan for the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
With the patient during diagnostic and therapeutic interacts multidisciplinary team: oncologist surgeon; oncologists who specialize in radiation therapy and chemotherapy, radiology, nephrologist, nurse. Doctors at the clinic Assuta will recommend the patient the best treatment option, but the final decision rests with the patient.
When making the most optimal variant doctors take into account the following factors: the stage of the disease and the extent of its distribution in the body, age and general health.
If a cancer is localized in kidney boundaries (T1 and T2), the healing process involves the removal of part or all of the kidney. When the tumor process is beyond the limits of the body (T3 and T4), a complete cure may not be possible. However, it is possible to slow the progression of cancer and treat symptoms of the disease.
Operations in renal cancer clinic Assuta
Assuta is primarily surgical center, this cost in mind when choosing a health care facility.
The volume of transactions depends on the size of the cancer and the extent of damage the kidneys.
Nephrectomy is surgery, which is performed during the removal of the kidneys.
If the tumor is less than 4 cm in diameter, may be needed only part of the organ resection. Such a partial nephrectomy is called. This operation also refer, if the remaining kidney is in poor condition.
When the diameter exceeds 4 cm tumors require full removal of kidneys. Even if the process of tumor spread beyond the limits of the body, conducting nephrectomy provides certain benefits. Removal of the kidneys can help eliminate pain, improve the efficiency of other types of non-surgical treatment. Perhaps a normal life with one kidney, it is able to compensate for the absence of the other.
At the time of nephrectomy, the surgeon can remove surrounding lymph nodes to make sure the cancer has not spread beyond the limits of the body.
Partial and full nephrectomy can be performed in two ways:
- With abdominal operation - through a large incision in the abdominal cavity.
- Through laparoscopic approach when surgery is performed through small incisions.
Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Laparokopicheskaya partial nephrectomy has a much shorter recovery time than abdominal.
Regardless of the approach nephrectomy requires specialized training of surgeons.
In some types of kidney cancer, where the tumor is located in the center of the body, laparoscopic surgery is not possible.
One of the main drawbacks of open nephrectomy - a serious burden on the body. This means that it will not be the best one for the attenuated organism.
A surgical team at the clinic Assuta will discuss in detail the pros and cons of both procedures with the patient.
In recent years, the aid surgeons, oncologists Israel came robotic machinery.
Embolization in the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
If the patient can not undergo nephrectomy, using the alternative operation - embolization.
During this procedure, the surgeon inserts a catheter into the bladder using x-rays, directs it to the kidney. Then the catheter is introduced a substance that blocks the flow of blood to the body. Blocking the blood supply leads to a shortage of oxygen, nutrients, causing the death of the body.
Nonsurgical treatment of metastatic kidney cancer in Israel
Kidney cancer is one of the few types of cancer that responds poorly to chemotherapy. However, there are various methods that can help slow the spread of cancer and control symptoms.
Radiotherapy in the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
Radiotherapy mostly can not cure the disease, but can slow its progression and relieve pain. There are daily sessions in a few minutes, for a number of days.
If the irradiation is used to control the symptoms, side effects usually occur in a mild form and can include fatigue, vomiting and nausea.
Cryotherapy in the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
Cryotherapy involves destruction of malignant cells by freezing them. This method may be recommended if the patient is healthy enough for surgery or when the tumor is small - about 4 cm in one stage of the disease.
Cryotherapy is performed in two ways - percutaneously (needle introduced through the skin) or laparoscopically (via a small incision). Unwanted potential effects of treatment may include bleeding around the kidney, ureter injury.
Percutaneous cryotherapy of kidney cancer in Israel is carried out under general anesthesia or local anesthesia and sedation. It can be carried out a biopsy of the tumor. Under the guidance of diagnostic imaging probe is introduced percutaneously into the tumor, delivering the refrigerant. During the freezing cycle should heat cycle. As a rule, it carried out two cycles of freezing - thawing for ablation of the tumor.
Laparoscopic cryoablation performed under general anesthesia. retroperitoneal or transperitoneal access might be applied. Possible to perform a biopsy during the procedure. the probe is introduced into the tumor to deliver refrigerant under imaging guidance. Each cycle of freezing followed by thawing - an average of two repetitions.
Radio frequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
RFA to destroy abnormal cells uses heat generated by radio waves. Percutaneous treatment is, therefore, was not required cuts.
Therapy is available only in specialized centers. It is mainly used when the patient is healthy enough for surgery, or kidney cancer diagnosed in the early stages.
RFA is not conducted when the tumor is too close to other organs such as the intestines.
Side effects can include bleeding in the processing zone, a hematoma in the area of renal problems with urination due to constriction of the ureter.
RFA procedure is performed under local anesthesia and sedation or general anesthesia. One or more RF electrodes inserted percutaneously into the tumor under control of diagnostic imaging. Radiofrequency energy destroys tumor tissue in the treatment area. If necessary, the procedure can be repeated.
Targeted therapy in the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel
For the treatment of malignant renal tumors were developed a series of new drugs. Their main task - to identify and disrupt the functions necessary for the growth and spread of cancer.
Sunitinib in targeted therapies for kidney cancer
Sunitinib is most often prescribed for the treatment of kidney cancer in Israel. This type of drug known as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Tyrosine kinase - an enzyme or protein that helps cancer cells grow. Sunitib blocks it, stopping the development of abnormal cells.
The drug is taken in capsule form once a day for a month, followed by a two-week break. This six-week cycle is repeated as long as the treatment is effective. It is very important to take it according to precise dosage, following a doctor's prescription. It is impossible to stop the reception without prior consultation with a specialist.
Common potential adverse effects of the drug include nausea, diarrhea, hypertension, bleaching hair and skin inflammation in the oral cavity, skin rash.
Pazopanib (Pazopanib) in targeted therapy for kidney cancer
As sunitinib, pazopanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can be used to slow or stop the growth of malignant cells in the kidney. It also prevents the development of blood vessels in the tumor.
Drug tablets taken once a day, at about the same time, one hour before meals or two hours after meals. It is important to follow the exact prescription. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, high blood pressure, hair discoloration, impaired liver function.
Aksitinib in targeted therapies for kidney cancer
Aksitinib can be recommended for treatment of metastatic tumor process if sunitinib and / or pazopanib ceased to have effect, or were ineffective.
Aksitinib is also a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, a protein blocking and stopping the growth of cancer.
Medicine tablets taken twice a day. Your doctor may prescribe lower doses, which, depending on the patient's well-being can be increased after two weeks.
Potential side effects include diarrhea, vomiting and nausea, loss of appetite and weight, fatigue, hypothyroidism, headaches, infertility.
Sorafenib in the targeted therapies for a kidney cancer
Sorafenib - another tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It also prevents the development of tumor blood vessels.
Drug tablets taken twice a day. If the reception is carried out with the food, it is important to make sure that it was low fat, as its high content reduces the effectiveness of the drug.
It is also important to follow the exact instructions of the doctor. Among the common adverse effects noted nausea and vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, hair thinning, increased risk of bleeding, infertility, flushed skin.
Temsirolimus in the targeted therapies for a kidney cancer
Temsirolimus is sometimes used for the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer in Israel. This type of medication known as MTOR-inhibitor, which blocks a protein called MTOR, which is active in cancer cells, contributing to their development. Temsirolimus also prevents the growth of tumor blood vessels.
The drug is in liquid form, enters the body via intravenous drip or central catheter. treatment procedure takes 30-60 minutes and is performed at the clinic. Before each dose is usually given an antihistamine to prevent an allergic reaction.
Potential negative effects include: redness, dryness and itching of the skin, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, inflammation of the oral cavity, sleep problems, sterility.
Everolimus in targeted therapies for kidney cancer
This is a cure for metastatic kidney cancer that recurs during and after treatment. Everolimus blocks the signals on the growth and division within cells. Also prevents the action of the protein MTOR, which plays an important role in the development of abnormal cells.
The drug is taken in pill, once a day, at one and the same time. You should not chew or crush the medication, change the dosage and doctor's prescription.
The common potential adverse events include: infertility, pain and inflammation in the oral cavity, temporary menopause in women, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite; itching, dryness or rash on the skin.
Immunotherapy in treating kidney cancer in Israel
As drugs that prevent, disrupt and slow down the growth and development of cancer cells (tyrosine kinase inhibitors and MTOR), there are treatments that work by stimulating the immune system to attack the malignant cells. This method is called immunotherapy.
Bevacizumab - a drug that is administered intravenously. It blocks protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promoting tumor growth. Typically, bevacizumab is used in combination with immunotherapy - interferon preparation. Interferon is given by injection three times a week.
Other medication - aldesleukin - sometimes used to treat kidney cancer in Israel, in advanced malignancy. It is similar to a natural protein interleukin-2 produced in the body, which is part of the immune system. Interleukin-2 activated lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which fight infections and diseases.
Aldesleukin works in several ways. It prevents cancer cells grow and multiply, stimulates the immune system to attack the abnormal cells, it makes them (abnormal cells) secrete chemicals that attract immune cells. Aldesleukin and interferon usually given as a subcutaneous injection.
Immunotherapy is now rarely used for the treatment of metastatic cancer. This is because the targeted therapies are generally more effective in controlling tumor process, and immunotherapy can sometimes cause serious side effects.