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Exploring the relationship between fever and cancer

20 August 2018 15:43

Repeated patterns in patients accounts indicate the presence of an inverse relationship between the personal history of infectious fever and the risk of cancer, and these patterns are documented in the medical literature for decades. However, evidence to support this correlation remain largely anecdotal. In the book "On the Way to the anti-tumor immunity and febrile infections: the hypothesis of gamma delta (γδ) T-cells," published in the "Quarterly Review of Biology", Wieslaw Kozak Tomas Dzhedzheevski, Malgorzata Pawlikowski, Jakub Piotrowski and Sylvia Vrotek offer a mechanistic hypothesis that focuses on the potential impact of infectious fever is at a certain subset of T cells known as gamma-delta (gd) T cells.

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Based on previous research and experimental data, the authors argue that repeated exposure fever enhances the ability of gd T-cells to detect cell abnormalities and promote the inhospitable environment that destroys the malignant cells. This paper is the first to recognize the role that gd T-cells may play as members of this inverse relationship.

Infectious fever - a protective and adaptive response that occurs when the immune system comes into contact with exogenous pyrogens or pathogen-associated molecular structure (PAMP). In recognition of these exogenous pyrogens endogenous mediators, also known as endogenous pyrogens come into contact with febrile system. According to previous work Shephard et al. Febrile system consists of all the mechanisms responsible for fever relief, as well as the different systems that affect fever. Thermoregulatory mechanisms are activated, which leads to an increase in body temperature in the body.

The authors further clarify the function of endogenous mediators such as cytokines.

"In short, the endogenous mediators fever redirect metabolic substrates and the energy of the immune system during a fever, which greatly increases the incidence of a wide spectrum of immune effectors, including lymphocytes, gd expressing heterodimeric receptors that have a strong anti-tumor and anti-infective competence - authors write.

Gamma-delta T-cells have receptors (TCR), a heterodimer consisting of gamma-delta circuit. In fact, it is believed that the unique attributes of gd T-lymphocytes - lower variability TCR, minimal number of rearrangements of gene segments and TCR with older evolutionary memory - allow the cells to implement processes which help to reduce the risk of cancer, for example immune surveillance and attack cancer cells . Vg9Vd2 T cells capable of responding to various types of cancers such as carcinoma , lymphoma, prostate cancer , myeloma, and sarcoma . Exposure to infection greatly expands the number of gd T-cells. During infection blood Vg9Vd2 T cells may be increased as long as they do not amount to 60 percent of the total lymphocytes.

While previous studies and modern methods of cancer immunotherapy generally focuses on alpha / beta (a) T cells, analysis of the interaction between fever and gd-T cells can lead to the further investigation greater impact and clinical benefits of these relationships.

Source: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180817150311.htm

 

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