Patients with prostate cancer who smoke are more likely to appear tumors that spread to other parts of the body and be fatal - according to a new study.
Scientists examined data from previous studies, involving 22,549 men with prostate cancer who had no metastasis. Cancer treated either by surgery or radiation.
Overall, almost one in five was a smoker. During the observation lasted six years, compared to men who never smoked, current smokers are 40% more likely to have tumors following treatment, and more than twice as likely to have cancer that spreads beyond the prostate gland. Smokers are also 89% more likely to die from cancer.
"Diagnosis of prostate cancer, even if it is not associated with smoking tobacco, - that is the reason for patients to quit smoking," - said senior study author Dr. Shariat Sharoh of Medical University of Vienna in Austria.
"Smoking has been associated with a higher risk of relapse, but does not spread or cancer mortality, highlighting the importance of smoking cessation to improve the outcome of the disease," - said the Sharia. In fact, he added, the men who stopped smoking for more than 10 years earlier, "not significantly different from patients who had never smoked."
"We know that cigarettes contain over 70 carcinogens" - Shariat said.
It is unclear exactly how smoking can lead to the development of prostate cancer, or make it more aggressive or more lethal. One possibility is that smoking causes inflammation which, in turn, promotes the growth of tumors, or that nicotine leads to the spread of cancer, Shariat said.
Smaller studies in the current analysis, in which deaths from cancer have been studied, to a total of 7924 participants. Overall, 654 men, or about 8% died during follow-eight years.
The current study was not a controlled experiment designed to prove whether smoking affects the likelihood of death from prostate cancer. The researchers analyzed the smoking status, when the patient is in the treatment, and it is possible that some patients can stop or start smoking after that.
According to Dr. Steven Friedland, author and director of the Center for Integrated Cancer Research and lifestyle at the Medical Center Cedars-Sinai in Los Angeles, smokers may be less compatible with the treatment. But because the study dealt with people undergoing aggressive treatment, it is unlikely that non-impact on patient outcomes.
"The cigarettes themselves have chemicals that can cause cancer," - said Friedland. "However, the fact that the death of prostate cancer is associated with smoking and chemicals are not just present in the lungs and absorbed in the body and make their way to the prostate gland and, as such, they are likely to get into every organ in our body" .
The study was published online May 24 in JAMA Oncology.