It is expected that a new diagnostic tool will lead to better treatment of cancer, which is difficult to diagnose. This tool was developed by researchers at the Academy Salgrenska cancer and doctors at the University Hospital Salgrenska, Sweden. Their study, which was published in the precise accuracy of ontology JCO, started with a cancer patient.
"We believe that the described analytical methods have fairly direct effects, which can help patients who do not have a proper diagnosis of cancer," - says Jonas Nilsson, Professor of Experimental Surgical Oncology and Director of the Center Salgrenska cancer.
The patient came to the university Salgrenska hospital with lung cancer, which was repeated several times, in spite of various treatments. The disease was fatal, but the patient has passed several biopsies to study to death. The key to the correct diagnosis in this case turned out to be the identification and determination of the nature and origin of the tumor in the details that did not correlate with the clinical picture. This required a large number of samples before and after the patient's death.
In the extensive analytical work was a lot of surprises. One of them was the rapid growth of the tumor under the skin of mice, when the biopsy was introduced. Another analysis showed that it is not associated with a conventional type of lung cancer, but rather with neuroendocrine (hormonal) cancer. The tumor also was unexpected mutation in the BRAF gene specific cancer.
"What is most remarkable in this respect is the fact that this means that the patient can be treated with so-called BRAF inhibitors that are effective and lead to shrinkage of the tumor patient," - says Jonas Nilsson. "Patient tumors in mice also grew more slowly when the mouse is treated with the BRAF inhibitors, but unfortunately, the tumor was repeated six months later, and the patient died."
A new method, called signal mutagenic analysis showed that the tumor is likely to have originated in the patient's skin. Joakim Karlsson, a doctoral student in bioinformatics and one of the three lead authors, explains: "When the ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin cells, a very typical pattern of mutation occurs in the recovery of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light," - he says.
Comparison with the data from sequencing the RNA 9000 based cancer tumors genome database (TCGA) showed that the biopsies of lung cancer is correlated with malignant melanoma of greater than 90 percent. Therefore, this tumor was not lung cancer, and melanoma metastasis located in the lungs. The value of using several extended for more sophisticated analysis of tumors to provide proper treatment underlines Joachim and two other leading authors Roger Olofsson buggies, and the pathologist the surgeon Akif Demir Salgrenska University Hospital.
Many of the procedures approved by the Agency Swedish medical products for a definite diagnosis, but not for others. Therefore, the diagnosis of correction may lead to a different and more appropriate treatment for patients with complex cancer.