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A new approach to lung cancer treatment

March 2, 2018 15:52

A new study on the search of a medicament for the treatment of lung cancer. It has been focused on non-coding molecules that have long puzzled scientists.

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Nerekodiruyuschaya RNA can be a place to search for drugs for the treatment of cancer, suggests a new study.

According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), lung cancer caused about 25.9 percent of all cancer deaths in the last year and amounted to 13.2 percent of all new cancer diagnoses in the United States.

But the forecast for this and other types of cancer can be improved; researchers conducted a thorough examination of the role of long non-coding RNA in cancer tumor development.

RNA acts as a messenger for DNA information, carrying out the instructions and regulating protein biosynthesis. But there is another type of RNA known as "non-coding RNAs," which is not involved in the process of protein synthesis.

Noncoding RNA has long remained a mystery, but little by little, the researchers revealed the fact that it is not without function. Non-coding RNA, as it turned out, involved in the regulation of cell division cycles.

This feature involves noncoding RNAs in the development of cancer tumors by allowing some cells to proliferate abnormally.

In the new study, researchers found that by reducing the activity of non-coding RNA, they were able to reduce lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse model of 40-50%.

According to the researchers, the link between the non-coding RNA and cancer is known, but no one had ever held such a wide and extensive analysis, and did not investigate long noncoding RNAs so specifically.

Future in the treatment of cancer - based on RNA

In this project, researchers have considered 16 types of cancer by analyzing 6419 solid tumors and normal tissue sample 701 (which are used as a reference material).

The initial goal was to researchers to identify long noncoding RNA molecules, active during the so-called DNA synthesis phase of cell division in which the genetic information is replicated.

Since there is a strong connection between the cell division cycle and cancer, scientists have used it as the basis for the identification of important long non-coding RNA molecules that play a key role in cancer development.

Higher expression of some of these long noncoding RNA molecules during the cell cycle of cell division can cause uncontrollability cells, resulting in the formation of cancerous tumors.

To identify the appropriate sequencing of RNA molecules are used - a tool that allows researchers to treat a range of expressed RNA - and technology, specially developed in the laboratory Salgrenskoy Academy.

Scientists were able to determine exactly 570 non-coding RNA molecules expressed in different ways in different types of cancer. They discovered 633 new biomarker "with high accuracy predictions" for 14 types of cancer.

To better understand how these findings may help professionals in the treatment of cancer, a team of scientists working with mice grafted with human cancer.

Twice a week, they were administered to mice blocked oligonucleotides antisense nucleic acid, an agent which blocks the action of the corresponding non-coding RNA.

Within 15 days after treatment, researchers found that the tumors have decreased by almost half.

Thus, scientists have identified a new method of treating lung cancer , optimized it in the lab and identified a long non-coding RNA molecules that are involved in uncontrolled cell division. By targeting these specific molecules they have reduced the growth of cancer. Additionally, molecules may be used to predict disease.

After this initial success, the researchers suggested that in the future, this method can be used for the treatment of lung cancer in people with equally favorable results.

They propose to treat lung cancer, for which the survival rate for 5 years now stands at just 18 percent, with the help of a new method based on RNA.

Professionals need to conduct more research to find out whether it is possible to carry out clinical trials in patients, they believe that there is a future for cancer therapies based on RNA in the treatment of lung cancer.

Source: MedicalNesw Today


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