New research survey data show that only a few parents choose to have their children vaccinated against sexually transmitted human papilloma virus (HPV) because of fears that the vaccination would encourage or support the sexual activity of young people.
The findings, published in the November issue of the "Journal of Adolescent Health," can help to develop new measures to increase the rates of HPV vaccination.
The HPV vaccine has revealed the prospect is that it helps stop the long-term rate of spread of the cancer, the transmitted virus, including an annual estimated 31 500 cases in the United States due to cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, and anus orofarinksa. The US administration by the Food and Drug Administration approved the vaccine - from 9 years - in 2006 for women and 2009 for men. But it was not recommended for use in men until 2011. Global studies have shown that the vaccine is almost 100 percent effective and very safe, the FDA concluded that the vast majority of side effects are minor and that the benefits continue to outweigh the adverse events.
Despite the ACIP's recommendation to include the vaccine in the regular vaccination series of children, the current use of the vaccine in the United States remains relatively low. In 2016, the latest year for which there are data on vaccination rates, only 50 percent of women having the right to participate, and 38 percent of men who have the right to participate, completed the vaccination.
"We want to better understand why parents choose not to vaccinate their children against HPV, since this information is crucial to the development of improved public health campaigns", - said study author Anne Rosich, assistant professor of epidemiology in the Department of School of Public Health. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. She holds a joint appointment in oncology in a comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel.
NIS-Teen collects information from a nationally representative sample of parents on the use of vaccines for children, with vaccination rates checked with the information received from each child's doctor.
During these years, the survey included questions about whether the planned parents vaccinate their children against HPV, if they have not been, and if not, why they have decided not to do so. The research team analyzed the answers to this particular question, which is asked every year from 2010 to 2016. In 2010, responses were received from 3068 parents of girls and 7236 parents of boys aged 13-17 years. In 2016 were the responses from parents of girls in 1633 and 2255 parents of boys aged 13-17 years. The question was open, allowing the parents to give their reasons, rather than choose from a list.
Scientists have sorted the answers in the "Cause" categories, dividing data on age and sex of children.
They found that girls are four main reasons why the parents refused vaccination, remained relatively stable between 2010 and 2016 years. Among them there were problems with security (cited by 23 percent nevaktsinatsionnyh parents in 2010 compared to 22 percent in 2016), the lack of need (21 percent vs. 20 percent), knowledge (14 percent vs. 13 percent) and the doctor's recommendations (9 per cent against 10 per cent ). Those who relied on the absence of their children's sexual activity, reduced by nearly half over the years (19 percent vs. 10 percent).
For boys the main reasons why parents are not planted in 2010, with time declined. These include lack of need (24 percent vs. 22 percent), doctor's advice (22 percent vs. 17 percent), knowledge (16 percent vs. 14 percent), lack of sexual activity of the child (16 percent vs. 9 percent) and sex (13 percent vs. 2 %). It is noteworthy, however, that concerns about security have increased from 5 percent in 2010 to 14 percent in 2016. Researchers are not sure why this is so, but note that less than 1 percent of the parents of men from 2010 to 2016 reported problems against vaccination as a reason not to vaccinate your child. The researchers say it is unlikely that these security problems associated with exposure to false information against vaccination.
Beavis said that their findings show that parents are less concerned with the attitude of a vaccine against HPV to sex and sexual acts, and that public health campaigns should be focused on the permanent security issues and the need for a vaccine for boys and girls, in order to respond to parents the truth. It suggests that doctors who usually run the HPV vaccine, including family practice physicians, obstetricians / gynecologists and pediatricians need to focus on the fact that the HPV vaccine has great potential to prevent cancer.
These doctors also may be more likely to tell their parents about the subject and recommend the vaccine if they will better understand that a relatively small number of parents avoid vaccination because of concerns about sexual activity.
"We believe that all doctors should be the protectors of the vaccine, which can prevent tens of thousands of cases of cancer each year", - says Beavis. "Providing strong advice is a powerful way to improve vaccination rates."
According to the American Association for Sexual Health, 80 percent of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives. Most of these infections without symptoms are resolved. However, HPV is sexually transmitted and can cause genital warts and benign tumors on aerodstisticheskom tract, a condition called laryngeal papillomatosis. In addition, certain strains can cause changes in the DNA, which promote the formation of cancer in men and women.
HPV can be transmitted in ways other than sexual intercourse. Guttmacher Institute, which conducts independent research on sexual activity, diseases, sexually transmitted and reproductive health, reports that about 50 percent of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years of age have oral sex with an opposite sex partner, and 1 out of 10 - anal sex with the opposite sex partner.
HPV vaccine can protect from nine cancer-causing HPV. The recommended dosing schedule for the vaccine now includes two injection if first administered to 15 years, or three injection if first administered after 15 years.