Scientists research hospital of St. Judah identified a new mechanism that may contribute to the growth and spread of solid tumors. The conclusions were published in Developmental Cell.
Researchers have studied transcription factors YAP and TAZ. Proteins that have overlapping functions, activate gene expression and contribute to cell proliferation. YAP / TAZ signal controlled by Hippo. Path changed in many solid tumors, which leads to activation of YAP / TAZ. However, researchers were unclear as YAP / TAZ stimulates the proliferation and promotes the growth and spread of tumors.
"Instead of the activation of several genes involved in cell proliferation, activation of YAP / TAZ in this study caused an increase in the activity of gene transcription or gipertranslyatsii" - says Ksinvey Cao, author of the article. - cell transcription activity increased by about 50 percent. Many of the activated genes involved in biosynthesis and make proteins, RNA, and other materials necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells. "
For the study, the researchers activated the YAP / TAZ in the immature brain cells in mice by deleting two genes in Hippo way. Lats 1/2 genes prevent the activation of YAP / TAZ.
The scientists used a method that takes into account the different amounts of total RNA in mutant and normal cells. The usual analysis tool able to detect global changes in gene transcription and involved.
Previous studies at other institutions have shown that the violation of the Hippo pathway and activation of YAP / TAZ led to cell proliferation and tumor formation.
Scientists have observed transient increase in cell proliferation, accompanied by a massive apoptosis in the developing brain. Cell death was caused by apoptosis, programmed cell death by, which helps the body get rid of unnecessary, unwanted or harmful cells.
"Neural progenitor cells can have a mechanism to protect from over-proliferation, while in the liver and other organs are more likely to form tumors," - says Cao.
Researchers are using the results to study how activation of YAP / TAZ can affect the development of other solid tumors.