Melanoma is one of the most lethal types of cancer may be caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet sunlight and artificial light sources such as a solarium lamps and tanning. «The Melanoma Network of Canada» reports that the risk of melanoma has increased significantly. If in the 1930s the disease affects only one person out of 1,500, in our day it affects one person out of 63. It is therefore important to find new, more effective treatments.
Gene therapy introduces changes in the genetic apparatus of human cells. Currently, it is used only for the treatment of incurable diseases. This is still an experimental technique. There is a shortage of chemical compounds that can safely and effectively deliver genes into cells.
Now scientists have developed a nanoparticle - chemical structures that are 1000 times smaller than the cross section of a human hair. These nanoparticles can be more efficiently and safely carry genes into cells.
"Gene therapy is better than traditional treatments. It can be used to cure the cause of the disease and not just the symptoms," the researchers noted.
The scientists have tested 22 new nanoparticles, surfactants, Gemini, and found that they were eight times more effective in the delivery of genes, compared with the older generation of Gemini surfactants, studied in previous studies.
The researchers also found evidence that the new nano is 20% less toxic than those currently in use, and are more compatible with the body.
"For the treatment of melanoma it is important that the compound enters the skin However, they must not penetrate too deeply and enter the bloodstream -. This can cause dangerous side effects - the scientists noted -. New nanoparticles showed minimal penetration into a liquid that simulates blood flow. "
The study was published in «Bioconjugate Chemistry» and «Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis».
In the future, the researchers plan to test the efficacy of the treatment of mice with melanoma alive with new nanoparticles. Results will be available in the next few years.