There are many options for the treatment of melanoma , the choice of which is due to stage the disease. The most common method of treatment of localized tumors is the initial phase of operation in melanoma, and most often it is the only mode of treatment.
In more advanced stages of disease, when the cancer penetrates to other parts of the body, are also involved methods such as chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapy.
Simple excision - surgery for melanoma in Israel
This is a relatively small procedure, which is also called a simple removal of the melanoma . It is usually done under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, to remove the pre-cancerous growths and thin localized melanoma whose thickness is not less than 1 mm and not more than 2 mm. During surgery for melanoma doctor removes the tumor with a small amount of surrounding healthy tissue. It is called "deviation from the edges" due to malignancy and tumor thickness of 0.5 cm to not less than 2. The tissue sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.
Wounds heal quickly within a week or two, during this time remain seams. Most patients are advised to avoid heavy exercise in a given period. Scars mostly - are small, their size depends on many factors, including the location of the tumor and patient care for the wound after the procedure.
Wide excision - removal of melanoma in Israel
If after a simple removal of tissue in a laboratory study diagnose melanoma on stage 1, the probability of the necessity of a second operation of resection greater area of healthy tissue around melanoma.
Absolute indication to a wide excision of melanoma is the intermediate (2nd and 3rd stage of disease), when cancer cells invade other parts of the body through the blood or lymph vessels.
During operation usually removed 1-2 cm from the tumor area to reduce the risk of reversion disease. Performed resection of melanocytes, which can be susceptible to transformation into malignant cells. When removing melanoma thickness of 1 mm or less resected 1 cm, 1 to 2 mm - one - two centimeters, from 2 to 4 mm - two centimeters, more than 4 mm - two centimeters. In some cases there is a need for reconstructive surgery, skin grafting.
MOS operation - the removal of melanoma in Israel
Micrographic surgery MOS now increasingly used as an alternative to the standard removal of melanoma in some cases. In this technique, performed resection of a thin layer of tissue, and the study of its edges under a microscope for cancer cells. Removing layers is performed, it is not completely removed the cancer. As a result, all resected cancer cells and preserves the maximum amount of healthy tissue. In the past, this type of surgery is rarely chose to remove the melanoma because of concerns that some tiny segments can be skipped, and ultimately give metastases.
In recent years, special dyes, emphasizing these cells have been developed. Apply opportunities immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, using substances that produce melanocytes, which makes it possible to see them under the microscope. A growing number of surgeons spend MOS operation to remove melanomas.
Sentinel node biopsy - surgery for melanoma in Israel
For patients with a particular type of melanoma lymph node biopsy, known as biopsy of the sentinel lymph node is often performed. It is an operation during which removes one or more lymph nodes, lymphatic fluid which penetrates from the tumor, and examined for the presence of cancer cells. Indications are invasive stages of melanoma. If cancer is diagnosed, then conduct extensive lymph node dissection. In the case where the sentinel lymph node shows no signs of cancer, then an additional surgical intervention is no longer required.
Malignant cells - a measure of risk that melanoma is able to penetrate into other parts of the body. Then it may be appropriate use of CT and / or MRI.
During the biopsy used blue dye or a special indicator substances that behave similar tumor cells, lymph node changes color. In order to see this, the doctor uses a special device. Node removed and examined under a microscope in an operation for melanoma.
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is less invasive procedure than conventional dissection, and is generally associated with fewer side effects such as lymphedema (fluid accumulation, and swelling of the affected area).