Bone cancer - a malignant bone tumor that destroys healthy bone and deforming the affected areas of the body. There are benign tumors. In fact, they are much more common cancers. Both the first and second types of bone tumors are able to grow in size, but between them there is one major difference, malignant grows through healthy tissue and benign - moves them.
Typically, the main method of treatment of bone cancer is surgery. The surgeon removes the entire tumor along with adjacent healthy tissues it to completely remove cancer cells from the body and reduce the likelihood of relapse. Following analysis of the operations carried healthy tissue for the presence of malignant cells. If they are found, this may indicate that the malignancy has not been completely eliminated from the body.
Kind of perazim bone cancer depends on several factors:
- The localization of the disease outbreak.
- The tumor has spread to other parts of the body.
- The type of tumor and its stage.
- Age and health of the patient.
Sarcoma (tumors) upper and lower extremities
In Israel during the surgery removed the tumor and its surrounding tissues. Typically, the practitioner conduct of organ (organ) operations and try not to use such radical methods, such as amputation. However, in some cases, the limb can not be avoided in the treatment of bone cancer operations for complete removal. With modern techniques and equipment replacement surgeons perform special resected portion of the bone implant (plastic, ceramic, metal or bone). When amputation upper or lower limb prostheses are installed.
Amputation - type of surgery aimed at removing the entire limb or a certain part. This type of surgery for cancer of the bone is carried out only in cases where the volume of damaged tissue is too large and other treatment meaningless.
Radical resection level should be approximately 6 centimeters above the region of malignant tumors, t. E., This region is removed and all the tissues beneath it. In case sarcoma progresses in the proximal humerus and extends to the shoulder joint, the interscapular-thoracic amputation should be performed, and in case of its localization on the lower third of the femur, the operation is performed in the upper third. When a malignant tumor of the upper end of the femur is applied mezhpodvzdoshno-abdominal amputation at which the deleted one of the lower limb, and half of the pelvic bone.
Operation cancer bones of the upper and lower limbs is performed so that a so-called collar, consisting of muscle and skin was formed near the site of ablation. It should fit into the end of the prosthesis. The patient can start walking again after 12-24 weeks, aimed at addiction and the ability to use a prosthesis after surgery on the lower limbs and subsequent rehabilitation.
Organ-operation in cancer of bones and possible risks
If bone cancer progresses in the upper or lower limbs, any surgeon first of all try to save part of the body and carry-sparing surgery - wide excision of pathological formation with juxtaposed fabrics, rather than an entire arm or leg. This is the most common type of surgery applicable bone cancer in the initial stages. For example, treatment of 80% of patients with osteosarcoma carried out in this manner.
However, the most important stage of the operation for cancer of bone is a sampling of healthy tissue, which was located next to the malignancy. It held its full analysis, and if the cancer cells in the sample is completely absent, the surgeon establishes the prosthesis. As prosthetic implants and bone grafts may be used, and they both operate remote organ function. Rapid development and growth of bone in a child is accompanied by a change in the size of the set endoprosthesis.
After the conserving surgery in patients with bone cancer may have infectious complications. To prevent postoperative infections, patients must take antibiotics before and after surgery. Otherwise near the bone graft may begin to break down, and the implant itself will lose strength and stability. To cure the patient performed a second operation to destroy the infection, remove the old medical device and replace it with new. In 75 cases out of 100 such surgery it is performed successfully. In the other - required immediate amputation.
There is always the possibility that the tumor may grow again. In that case, if they were not removed all of the existing metastases - secondary growth poles, small tumors near the central malignancy, but not connected to it, there is a re-development of bone cancer, the operation at the same time it is likely to become an amputation.
Reconstructive surgery after surgery for cancer of bones
In Israel, the surgeons perform complicated operations for the maximum recovery of the same shape and limb function. In malignant tumors of the femur doctor may first be amputated lower limb, remove the affected portion of the tumor, to hold a 180-degree reversal of the lower leg, causing the heel is on the same level as the knee joint, and sew the limb back. Such an operation for cancer of bone prostheses and further facilitates the movement of the patient.
Surgery for bone cancer to other parts of the body
If the localization of malignant tumors found in other areas, doctors also use a wide excision of the pathological formation and surrounding tissues and in tumors of the spine or skull using other methods to remove and fill the space: curettage - operation in which the surgeon cleans out the cancer cells, but does not remove bone . Thereafter, the physician handles the voids formed by liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy) in order to completely destroy all tumor cells. In the end, such an operation for cancer of bone ends up filling the holes in the tissue with bone cement.