Lung cancer is one of the most common and serious types of cancer .
In the early stages of the disease usually do not have any signs, but eventually develop the following symptoms:
- persistent cough;
- coughing up blood;
- persistent shortness of breath;
- unexplained fatigue, and weight loss;
- pain when breathing or coughing.
If present, these symptoms, you should always consult a doctor.
Types of Lung Cancer
Cancer that begins in the lungs, called the primary. If the cancer develops in other parts of the body, and then spreading to the lungs, this type of cancer is known as secondary.
There are two main types of primary lung cancer. They are classified by cell type that affects oncology:
- Non-small cell lung cancer - the most common type, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Its forms: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell.
- Small cell lung cancer is less common, but usually spreads through the body faster.
It is necessary to determine the type of cancer for the proper use of treatment programs .
Who is affected by this disease?
Lung cancer affects mainly older, rarely occurs in people under the age of 40 years. Most often, it is diagnosed in 70-74 years.
Although people who have never smoked, the disease can cause, smoking is a major cause (around 90%) lung cancer. This is due to the fact that in the process of smoking a person constantly breathes a number of different toxic substances.
Diagnosis of lung cancer in Israel
At the first stage the physician interrogates the patient's general health and are experiencing symptoms. It may employ a spirometer which measures the amount of inhaled and exhaled air.
Give blood tests to rule out some of the possible causes of the symptoms, such as, as an example, infection.
If there is a steady hemoptysis or other signs of lung cancer, the patient is sent on chest X-ray and directly to the expert - oncologist.
X-ray examination is usually the first test which is used for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Most tumors detected by x-rays, they are viewed as a white-gray mass.
However, chest x-ray can not provide a definitive diagnosis, because it is often impossible to distinguish from other oncology diseases, such as, for example, lung abscess.
If there is a suspicion of malignancy, the patient is sent to a person who picks up the greater number of diagnostic tests.
CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer
Computed tomography is usually carried out after radiography. CT uses X-rays and a computer to create detailed images of internal structures of the human body. Before the examination carried out an injection of a contrast agent. This liquid containing colorant contributes a clearer display light during scanning. The procedure is painless and takes 10-30 minutes.
PET-CT in the diagnosis of lung cancer
PET-CT can be performed if the CT results revealed cancer diagnosis at an early stage. Scanning PET-CT shows the presence of active cancer cells in the body. Procedure duration is 30-60 minutes, apply a radioactive drug.
Bronchoscopy and biopsy
If the CT scan reveals tumors in the central part of the chest, appointed by bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer. This is a procedure that allows you to remove a small sample of cells from the lungs. During bronchoscopy, using a thin tube called a bronchoscope to examine the lungs and take some of the cells for analysis (biopsy).
The procedure can be uncomfortable, so in advance given a mild sedative and a local anesthetic to make the throat. Bronchoscopy takes a few minutes.
Can be used several types of biopsies. This may be during the surgical biopsy or thoracoscopy or mediastinoscopy biopsy conducted via the puncture needle inserted through the skin.
Percutaneous biopsy in the diagnosis of lung cancer
Percutaneous biopsy involves removal of a tumor sample to test for the presence of malignant cells. During the procedure, the doctor will use a CT scanner to determine the localization of tumors. Local anesthesia is used for analgesia, and the needle introduced through the skin into the lungs to obtain a tissue sample.
Thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer
Thoracoscopy is a procedure that allows you to explore a specific area of the chest and take the tissue and fluid samples for analysis.
It is used general anesthesia. Performed two or three small incisions in the chest to enter thoracoscopy (similar to a bronchoscope). This device is used to study the inner area and taking material which would then be sent for further study. After thoracoscopy patient likely will have to stay in hospital overnight.
Mediastinoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer
Mediastinoscopy allows the doctor to examine the area between the lungs - the mediastinum, in the middle of the chest.
For this test, require general anesthesia and hospital stay for a few days. Runs a small incision in the lower part of the neck, so you can enter a thin tube into the chest area. At the end of the tube is a camera that allows the doctor to see the inner surface of the chest. It also can take cell samples and lymph nodes.
After the above tests are completed, the determined stage of cancer of the lungs, which is important for predicting future treatment programs.