Primary liver cancer is relatively rare, while the secondary is much more common.
In secondary liver cancer, a disease born somewhere in the body and affects the body when the cancer cells get into the bloodstream. These most common types of primary malignant diseases giving metastasis in the liver, oncology include breast, lung , stomach , skin ( melanoma ), colon, pancreas, ovaries.
Sometimes, even after a thorough medical tests, doctors can not find the original focus of disease.
Symptoms of liver cancer
Symptoms of liver cancer is often quite vague and did not appear until the disease has reached an advanced stage. Symptoms may include:
- unexplained weight loss;
- loss of appetite;
- fullness after a meal, even if the portion was small;
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain or swelling in the abdomen;
- fever, fever;
- a feeling of fatigue and weakness.
People sometimes overlook vague discomfort in the upper abdomen, in some cases painful. This is due to the fact that liver begins to increase. Sometimes the pain can be felt in his right shoulder, the so-called referred pain. A greater volume of the body affects the nerves below the diaphragm, connecting to the nerve fibers in his right shoulder.
By blocking the bile duct bile produced by the liver, will flow back into the blood, causing jaundice. The skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow, it may be itchy. For other manifestations include dark urine and light stools.
In the later stages of this symptom is observed as ascites - fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Factors may be several:
- If the cancer cells have penetrated into the abdominal cavity, it can provoke irritation and fluid accumulation.
- Liver damage venous pressure increases, leading to ascites. The fluid from the abdominal cavity is not able to quickly pass through the liver, for this reason, it accumulates in the abdominal cavity.
- If the liver is damaged, it will produce less of the main blood protein - albumin. This will lead to fluid imbalance in the body and its accumulation in tissues.
- Cancerous cells can block the lymphatic system, which is a network of capillaries, vessels and assemblies throughout the body. One of its functions - removing excess fluid, which ultimately comes out of the body in the urine.
It is worth visiting the doctor, if observed in any of the above symptoms. Although they are likely to be the result of a more general condition, but it is better to be tested.
Causes of liver cancer
The exact cause of liver cancer is unknown, but in most cases the disease is associated with damage and scarring process organ known as liver cirrhosis. This disease can have several different causes, including excessive drinking for many years, or hepatitis B or C.
It is also believed that obesity and unhealthy diet can increase the risk of developing liver cancer, because they can provoke non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Eliminating or reducing the use of alcohol, keeping a healthy diet, exercising regularly; taking steps to reduce the risk of infection with hepatitis B and C, may significantly reduce the likelihood of this type of cancer.
The number of people falling ill from this disease increases sharply with age, approximately 8 out of 10 people diagnosed with liver cancer at the age of 60 years and older. In more developed in males.
In the last few decades have seen an increase in morbidity due to increased alcohol consumption and increasing obesity.
Diagnosis of liver cancer in Israel
If the patient is at high risk of developing liver cancer, it is often recommended regular inspection. Since the earlier detected oncology , the greater the likelihood of getting rid of the disease.
Observation is usually performed once every six months and includes:
- Ultrasound - This method uses sound waves of higher frequency to create images that can help detect any anomalies. 4 hours before the procedure will not eat.
- Blood tests - blood sample is examined for the presence of protein, known as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), occurs in some people with cancer of the liver.
Observation is usually recommended if there is a diagnosis of cirrhosis, although there are other factors that can also influence the risk of developing this type of malignancy.
Diagnosis of liver cancer in the clinic Assuta begins with examination of the upper abdomen, palpation. Take a blood test to check your overall health and liver function.
If you have previously been diagnosed with cancer and now there is a possibility of secondary liver cancer, conducted several tests to confirm the diagnosis. If the cancer was not, but there is a suspicion of a secondary form of the disease, the patient will be examined to find possible signs of the disease in other organs, and the original fireplace.
In some cases, it is impossible to find a primary tumor. Then set the form of oncology, cell type in order to choose the best option of treatment .
Several diagnostic procedures, whose task to confirm or refute the diagnosis of liver cancer will be assigned. If yes:
- find out whether the cancer is a primary or secondary;
- check the degree of liver damage;
- find out whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Further liver cancer diagnosis in Israel:
- CT scan creates detailed three-dimensional image of the body using a series of X-rays. The procedure is painless and takes 10-30 minutes. To enhance the clarity or applied radioactive contrast agent, it is administered by drinking or injection. It is important to report the presence of iodine allergy or asthma, as there may be a serious infusion reactions. Before the scan, at least 4 hours will not be able to take drinks or food.
- MRI uses a powerful magnetic field and radio waves to construct the image liver structure. At the time of diagnosis of liver cancer in Israel before the procedure, a list in order to ensure patient safety test. We are talking about the presence of metallic objects within the human body: implants, pacemakers, surgical clips, etc. If the body has a metal to be used another type of scan.. Also it can be used an injection of contrast agent to obtain a clearer image. Duration of treatment about 30 minutes.
- Biopsy during diagnosis of liver cancer in Israel involves removal of a small sample of body tissue, which is later tested for the presence of malignant cells. FIELD anesthetized by injection of local anesthetic followed by fine needle physician penetrates into the tumor through the skin. CT or ultrasound biopsy escorted to achieve precise localization of tumors. After the procedure, you may need a few hours or even overnight in the clinic Assuta, because there is the risk of bleeding.
- Diagnostic laparoscopy during diagnosis of liver cancer in Israel is a small operation which enables the physician to examine the liver. Under general anesthesia, an incision is performed in the abdominal cavity. Laparoscope is inserted therethrough, the fiber optic telescoping tube with a camera, and the liver is investigated. In addition, it is possible to see the body, it is possible to carry out a biopsy at the same time. Likely to need hospitalization for 1-2 days. Contraindication for laparoscopy procedure is executed before major surgery in the abdominal cavity.
Stage liver cancer
A certain phase of the disease indicates the extent of its distribution in the body. One of the classifications, including the 5 stages:
Stage 0 - the tumor is less than 2 cm in diameter, the overall health of the patient is normal, as liver function.
Step A - holds several tumors, one of which is increased to 5 cm in diameter, the other neoplasms - up to 3 cm bolnogo- feels normal, as the work organ..
Step B - there are multiple tumors in the liver, but it does not affect the patient's health and body function.
Step C - hold the above circumstances, the patient's poor state of health while as the liver or the cancer has begun to spread to the main body of a blood vessel, the surrounding lymph nodes or other tissue and systems.
Step D - liver has lost much of the functionality of, symptoms of the final phase of liver disease, such as the accumulation of fluid inside the (ascites).
If the diagnosis of liver cancer in Israel show a secondary form of cancer in the absence of an early conclusion of the malignant disease, will need further tests to determine the primary tumor. Will be planned important diagnostic procedures, determine further treatment, the doctor will discuss their conduct in the first place.
- Blood tests. Some forms of cancer produce abnormal proteins that can be detected by simple blood analysis. These proteins are called tumor markers. They help doctors figure out where is the primary tumor.
- PET-CT. If clinicians consider surgery as a treatment may be necessary given type of diagnostic for liver cancer. This combination of computer tomography (CT), which creates a series of X-ray images to construct a three-dimensional image, and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) using low doses of radiation to measure the activity of cells in different parts of the body. 6 hours before the scan will not eat. Mildly radioactive substance administered by injection into the arm. The radiation dose is very small. Scan usually takes 30-90 minutes.